Minimum standard (up to 12 credits available; building type dependent)
To recognise and encourage refurbishment and fit-out projects that reduce operational energy demand, primary energy consumption and carbon emissions.
The following is required to demonstrate compliance:
Up to twelve credits - Elemental level energy model
|1||Calculate the energy score using the BREEAM Refurbishment and Fit-out elemental level energy model for the applicable assessment parts to determine the number of credits awarded. The elemental level energy model also determines the number of credits available based upon the building type and applicable assessment parts with up to a maximum of 12 credits available (see Table 28 for example credits available for common project types). Also, refer to Table 26 to determine the minimum requirements for this issue.|
|2||The following should be assessed as applicable to the scope of works (see Table 29 for further details):|
|2.a||Part 1: Fabric and structure: thermal performance and air tightness of the building fabric|
|2.b||Part 2: Core services: energy performance of core heating, hot water, cooling and ventilation systems and controls|
|2.c||Part 3: Local services: energy performance of local heating, cooling, ventilation, lighting and controls as relevant|
|2.d||Part 4: Interior design: not applicable.|
|Evidence that the project has complied with the minimum requirements of local building regulations.|
|Excellent||Requires a minimum of 36% of available credits to be achieved.|
|Outstanding||Requires a minimum of 60% of available credits to be achieved.|
Two credits - Historic buildings only
Two additional credits are available for Historic buildings, up to a maximum twelve credits where:
|3||A specialist study has been undertaken by a suitably Qualified Heritage Conservation Specialist (see Relevant definitions) at the Concept Design stage, to investigate the implications of improving building fabric and services performance while minimising the potential negative impacts of both the historic character of the building, the condition of the building fabric and indoor air quality.|
|5||The report makes recommendations for potential improvements to the building fabric in accordance with local building regulations and national best practice or where none existing in accordance with EN 16096:2012.|
|6||Each of the following (as a minimum) must be considered and recommendations for improvement made:|
|6.b||External and sheltered walls|
|6.e||Windows and external doors|
Exemplary level criteria
The following outlines the exemplary level criteria to achieve up to five innovation credits for this BREEAM issue:
(Note: the exemplary level credits are available for all assessment parts but are likely to be only achievable where undertaking a whole building assessment and where undertaking work to the fabric and services)
Two credits - zero net CO₂ emissions
|8||The maximum available credits have been achieved under criteria 1 to 2|
|9||The energy performance of the building is calculated from design information using approved energy calculation (modelling) software|
|10||The calculated energy performance demonstrates that the building has zero net CO₂ emissions (see Relevant definitions) in terms of its building services energy consumption (see Relevant definitions).|
Up to five credits - carbon neutral
|11||Criterion 8 - 10 has been achieved.|
|12||The calculated energy performance demonstrates that an equivalent percentage of the building service energy consumption (see Relevant definitions), as stipulated in Table 27, is generated by carbon neutral on-site, near-site or accredited external renewables and is used to meet equipment energy demand (see Relevant definitions) from building systems or processes.|
|% operational energy consumption from carbon neutral sources|
Checklists and tables
Table 28 highlights examples of the credits typically available for each assessment part for common building types. Note that for Part 3 assessments, the credits available as indicated here are for where the only local service comprise of lighting only. Where there are a greater proportion of local services such as cooling, heating and ventilation compared to central services, there will be a greater number of credits available for Part 3 compared to Part 2. The credits available in this table should be used as a reference guide only. The actual number of credits available should be determined using the Elemental level energy model found on www.breeam.com/projects.
|Part 1||Part 2||Part 3||Part 4|
|Student residences and key worker accommodation||3||8||1||N/A|
|Sheltered housing, care homes and supported living facilities||2||8||1||N/A|
|University or higher education||2||5||5||N/A|
|Applicable assessment criteria|
|Parts: 1, 2 and 3||All assessment criteria are applicable|
|Part 4: Interior Design||This issue is not applicable.|
|Approved Building Energy Calculation Software||
In countries with an existing National Calculation Methodology (NCM), the tools approved for use under the NCM can be used as approved building energy calculation software. These will be confirmed by BRE as part of the approved standards and weightings list process. Where the design team wishes to use an alternative modelling software package for the purposes of assessing this BREEAM issue, please refer to the approved standards and weightings list to determine whether the modelling software package meets the minimum requirements in terms of:
Where those minimum requirements are met, approval from BRE Global will be required (via the approved standards and weightings list process) before the package can be used for the purposes of demonstrating compliance with Ene 01 criterion 9 .
|Suitably qualified energy modelling engineer or accredited expert||Where a National Calculation Methodology (NCM) requires accredited experts to undertake the energy performance calculations, these accredited professionals are also required to demonstrate compliance with this BREEAM issue. If the NCM does not require accredited experts or alternative approved building energy calculation software is used, then a suitably qualified energy modelling engineer must carry out the modelling (see Relevant definitions.|
|Building Regulations compliance||
Criteria 1 and 2 are based upon a relative improvement in energy performance over the existing building at an elemental level and do not assess compliance or performance beyond local Building Regulations. In all cases, the project should demonstrate that compliance with local Building Regulations has been met or exceeded through the relevant statutory body and this is the minimum requirement for a Pass rating.
|Extensions to existing buildings and newly constructed thermal elements||
Where the refurbishment project also includes a newly constructed extension with new thermal elements (see Scope section to see where this is allowable under the scope of the scheme), the performance of the baseline for new thermal elements should be based upon compliance with the appropriate local or national Building Regulations for new thermal elements
Where the new extension uses existing building services, the baseline performance of the new extension and existing building should be based upon performance of the existing common building services plant. The baseline for any new building services plant servicing the extension only should be based upon compliance with the appropriate local or national Building Regulations.
|Estimating energy demand from building systems and processes||To demonstrate compliance with the 'Exemplary level criteria', where the equipment system and process load (as relevant to project) for the existing building is similar to the energy demand for equipment and process load, post-refurbishment or fit-out, the building's equipment energy demand should be based upon metered data from the existing building. Where metered data are not available or the equipment and process load is not comparable, the predicted equipment system and process load should be modelled using CIBSE TM54 or other equivalent national best practice standards for modelling operational energy demand.|
|Energy exported to the grid||Any electricity from an on-site LZC energy source that is exported to the grid may be included in the calculations as if it were used within the building.|
|Zero carbon sources of energy - double counting||In reference to the exemplary level requirements, the project team must avoid double counting the energy from zero carbon sources. This may be particularly relevant where that source of energy generation is being counted for in terms of the assessed building's services CO₂ emissions or it will contribute to offsetting other buildings' CO₂ emissions, which are not part of this assessment.|
|Buildings assessed as part of a larger site||Where the building or refurbishment and fit-out zone under assessment forms part of a larger building and either a new or existing LZC installation is provided for the whole site, the amount of LZC energy generation counted for in this issue, and subsequent CO₂ emissions saved, should be proportional to the building's energy demand compared to the total energy demand for the site.|
Methodology for calculating elemental energy score
The elemental energy score is calculated using the BREEAM Refurbishment and Fit-out elemental level energy model found on the BREEAM Projects website (www.breeam.com/projects). This can be found within the BREEAM RFO pre-assessment estimator and reporting tool under issue Ene01.
The elemental energy calculation methodology follows a simplified approach that does not require the use of building energy modelling software. Instead of considering whole building performance, the elemental energy calculation methodology considers the performance of individual energy end-use subcomponents. This approach makes it possible to recognise improvements made to individual building components without penalising projects that are not undertaking a full building refurbishment addressing the building fabric, core services and local services in full. However it is possible to assess whole building energy performance where undertaking a parts 1, 2 and 3 combined assessment.
The elemental level energy model takes four calculation steps in order to determine performance:
Step 1: Evaluate existing building performance and the potential for improvement
Step 2: Assign end-use subcomponent weightings which are a function of:
- The outcomes of Step 1
- The building type
- The country and climate of the building undergoing assessment
- The building servicing strategy
- The level of certification being undertaken.
Step 3: Calculate performance against relevant subcomponents for the refurbished building
Step 4: Calculate the energy score by multiplying the subcomponent scores by the relevant subcomponent weightings
The subcomponents that are applicable for assessment vary depending on the level of certification being sought, and the building servicing strategy. Table 29 confirms the various subcomponents that are applicable for the different levels of assessment and certification.
|Applicable components||Applicable subcomponents|
|Part 1: Fabric and Structure||Thermal conductance and infiltration||
|Part 2: Core Services||Heating||
|Part 3: Local Services||Lighting||
|Local heating, cooling, ventilation and hot water||
If, for example, the project is only undergoing a Part 1 assessment, it is only the subcomponents relating to the fabric and structure that will be assessed. Similarly, if the building does not have cooling or mechanical ventilation, then the applicable cooling and mechanical ventilation subcomponents would be excluded from a Part 2 assessment.
While the information entered by the user on the level of certification and servicing strategy is used by the tool to determine which subcomponents are applicable for a given assessment, it is the information entered on existing building performance and building type that determines the relative importance of the applicable subcomponents (and their respective weightings). The initial weightings are set by taking account of the typical split in energy consumption across the different energy end-use components for the building type in question (based on a series of benchmarks built into the tool). This energy split is dependent upon the country and climate that the building undergoing assessment is located. The weightings are adjusted using degree day data in order to adjust the demand on heating and cooling as relevant, e.g. for a building in a colder climate, the weighting for heating will be greater and vice versa for buildings in a warmer climate.
Once information has been entered on the existing building performance, this is then used to adjust the initial weightings to reflect the fact that subcomponents with relatively poor performance have greater potential for improvement. Where any subcomponent is not applicable for the project being assessed due to the level of certification being sought or the building servicing strategy, the subcomponent would receive a zero weighting and as such not contribute to the overall score. If undertaking a Part 3 assessment for example, the only applicable end-use component may be 'Lighting' and as such the energy score would be calculated based entirely on the performance of the lighting in the refurbished building.
The applicable end-use subcomponents, and their relative subcomponent weightings for any given project can be calculated by entering the relevant project details and the required information on existing building performance into the BREEAM Refurbishment and Fit-out elemental level energy model. Due to the nature of the calculator, it should be noted that the end-use components weightings will vary for every project.
The performance of the refurbished building is determined based on the user responses to a second set of questions that mirror those used to ascertain the existing building performance, but should be answered based on the proposed refurbishment or fit-out specification.
Once the questions that describe the refurbished building performance have been answered, the BREEAM Refurbishment and Fit-out elemental level energy model will generate the overall energy score by combining the relevant subcomponent scores and respective weightings. Once the required questions have been answered, the tool will confirm the overall score, along with the relative performance in each of the applicable end-use subcomponents.
|criteria||Interim design stage||Final post-construction stage|
One or more of the appropriate evidence types listed in 4.0 The BREEAM evidential requirements section can be used to demonstrate compliance with these criteria.
One or more of the appropriate evidence types listed in The BREEAM evidential requirements to verify the data used to assess existing building and proposed building performance within the elemental level energy model
|As per interim design stage, but this must account for any changes to the specification during refurbishment or fit-out and where applicable the measured air leakage rate, ductwork leakage and fan performances (where required by local or national Building Regulations).|
As above, plus evidence confirming:
|As required above and as per interim design stage.|
- Building Regulations
- Building Regulations set standards for the design and construction of buildings to ensure the safety and health of people in or about those buildings. They also include requirements to ensure that fuel and power is conserved and facilities are provided for people, including those with disabilities, to access and move around inside buildings.
- Carbon negative building
- A building or site that generates, surplus to its own energy demand, an excess of renewable or carbon neutral energy and exports that surplus via the national grid to meet other, off-site energy demands, i.e. the building is a net exporter of zero carbon energy. Surplus in this respect means the building or site generates more energy via renewable or carbon neutral sources than it needs to meet its own regulated and unregulated energy needs. Any surplus must be exported through the national grid as additional capacity to that required by the Renewables Obligation, i.e. Renewable Obligation Certificates are not claimed or sold for the renewable energy generation (see definition of Renewables Obligation Certificate). This definition of carbon negative focuses only on energy and carbon dioxide emissions resulting from the operational stage of the building life cycle (as this is the stated aim of this assessment issue). It does not take into account the embodied carbon, in terms of carbon fixing or emissions resulting from the manufacture or disposal of building materials and components (these impacts and benefits are dealt with in Mat 01 Environmental impact of materials).
- Carbon neutral
- Carbon neutral means that, through a transparent process of calculating building operational emissions, reducing those emissions and offsetting residual emissions, net carbon emissions equal zero. This includes carbon emissions from both regulated and unregulated energy-consuming plan and systems. See the 'Zero net regulated CO₂ emissions' definition also.
- Energy demand
- The sum of the calculated annual demands for heating and cooling of the building, based on the relevant design details and subject to the standard weather conditions for the country of assessment. This is expressed in MJ per m² of floor area and calculated in accordance with approved building energy calculation software.
- Equipment energy
- Building energy consumption resulting from systems or processes within the building, other than Service energy (see definition below). This may include energy consumption from systems integral to the building and its operation, e.g. lifts, escalators, refrigeration systems, ducted fume cupboards; or energy consumption from operational-related equipment, e.g. servers, printers, computers, mobile fume cupboards, cooking and other appliances.
- Historic buildings
- Historic buildings are defined as building's or monuments that are formally protected under international, national or local laws or schedules and therefore subject to local planning and building regulations, including buildings that are in a conservation zone. Such buildings will normally require consent from the local, national or international historic buildings authority (e.g. UNESCO, Architectes des Bâtiments de France (ABF), the National Heritage Board of Poland etc.).
- Low or zero carbon (LZC) technologies
- An LZC technology provides a source of energy generation from renewable energy sources or from a low carbon source such as combined heat and power (CHP) or ground source heat pumps (GSHP).
- National Calculation Method (NCM)
- The National Calculation Method (NCM) enables quantification of building operational energy consumption and CO₂ emissions resulting from regulated building services or systems and fabric performance. The NCM is the methodology used for demonstrating compliance with the European Union Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) 2012 (recast). Building energy modelling compliant with the NCM can be carried out using approved software .
- Near-site LZC
- An LZC source of energy generation located near to the site of the assessed building. The source is most likely to be providing energy for all or part of a local community of buildings, including the assessed building, e.g. decentralised energy generation linked to a community heat network or renewable electricity sources connected via private wire.
- On-site LZC
- An LZC source of energy generation which is located on the same site as the assessed building.
- Primary energy consumption
- This refers to the direct use at the source, or supply to users without transformation, of crude energy, that is, energy that has not been subjected to any conversion or transformation process.
- Private wire arrangement
- In the context of BREEAM for LZC technology installations, a private wire arrangement is where any electricity generated on or in the vicinity of the site is fed directly to the building being assessed, by dedicated power supplies. If electricity is generated which is surplus to the instantaneous demand of the building, this electricity may be fed back to a local or national distribution grid. The carbon benefit associated with any electricity fed into the grid in this manner can only be allocated against an individual installation or building. In cases where a building is supplied by a communal installation, no carbon benefit can be allocated to buildings which are not connected to the communal installation.
- Building services energy consumption
- Building energy consumption resulting from fixed internal lighting systems, fixed heating or cooling, hot water service or mechanical ventilation.
- Suitably Qualified Heritage Conservation Specialist
- A person with at least 3 year's relevant experience in heritage conservation within the last 5 years and a recognised qualification in building conservation with a nationally recognised accreditation body or institute. The individual should have a working knowledge of techniques for the restoration and conservation of heritage buildings. This includes knowledge of the materials and techniques that can be used to improve energy efficiency in historic buildings, while identifying and managing any risks that may damage the historic character and welfare of the building.
- Suitably qualified energy modelling engineer
- A person with at least 3 year's relevant experience in energy modelling within the last 5 years and a recognised qualification such as a building services engineer or building energy modelling engineer. Their expertise should be broad enough to cover all required technical aspects, guaranteeing that the data entered in the energy model is appropriate and that the results reflect the actual performance of the building. It can be someone operating as a sole trader or employed by public or private enterprise bodies.
- Zero net regulated carbon (CO2) emissions
- The net annual building CO₂ emissions (kgCO₂/m²/year) arising as a result of service energy consumption is equal to zero.
- In aiming to achieve zero carbon status, the building energy modelling can take account of contributions of energy generated from on-site, near-site and accredited external renewables and low carbon installations. Energy generated and supplied from off-site renewables and low carbon installations that are not accredited cannot be used to meet this definition.
BREEAM International Non-Domestic Refurbishment 2015
Reference: SD225 – Issue: 1.4
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