Minimum standard. (15 credits available)
To recognise and encourage buildings designed to minimise operational Energy demand , Primary energy consumption and CO₂ emissions.
The following is required to demonstrate compliance:
Option 1 – Use of approved building energy calculation software
Up to 15 credits - Energy performance
|1||Calculate the Energy Performance Ratio for International New Construction (EPRINC). Compare the EPRINC achieved with the benchmarks in Table 26 and award the corresponding number of BREEAM credits.|
|1||0.06||To achieve one or more credits requires an improvement on the notional building level as defined in CN3.3.|
|6||0.36||BREEAM Excellent requires a minimum EPRINC of 0.36 (6 credits).|
|10||0.6||BREEAM Outstanding requires a minimum EPRINC of 0.6 (10 credits).|
A description of how the EPRINC is calculated from a building's modelled energy demand, primary energy consumption and CO₂ emissions is provided in the Methodology section.
Option 2 – Energy efficient design features
Where there is no NCM available, and the design team decide against an alternative modelling approach (see CN3.2), the energy performance of the building can be determined using Checklist A5.
Up to 10 credits
|2||A Suitably qualified energy modelling engineer or accredited professional has used Checklist A5 to determine the number of credits awarded for this issue.|
|3||The Suitably qualified energy modelling engineer or accredited professional has confirmed the items selected within Checklist A5 are appropriate to the building type and local climatic conditions to award a maximum of 10 of the available credits.|
Exemplary level criteria
The following outlines the exemplary level criteria to achieve up to five innovation credits for this BREEAM issue:
Up to four credits
|4||The building achieves 15 BREEAM credits under Option 1.|
|5||The building has been modelled using Option 1 and the modelling demonstrates that an equivalent percentage of the building's energy requirements, as stipulated in Table 26, is generated by On-site LZC or Near-site LZC technologies and is used to meet Equipment energy and Service energy from building systems, see CN3.9.|
|Innovation credits||Equivalent % criteria|
Five credits - Energy positive building
|6||The building has been modelled using Option 1 and the modelling demonstrates that the building is an Energy positive building.|
Checklists and tables
|Shell and core (non-residential and residential institution only)|
|Applicable assessment criteria||
Energy performance, criterion 1
Shell only: Calculate an Energy Performance Ratio just for the building’s heating and cooling energy demand only (EPR ED). Compare the EPR ED achieved with the EPR INC in Table 26 with the EPR ED substituted for the EPR INC. Award the corresponding number of BREEAM credits.
The exemplary credits for this issue are not applicable for shell only.
Shell and core only: All assessment criteria relevant to the building type and function apply.
Refer to Appendix D – Shell and core project assessments of this Scheme Document for further description of the above options.
|Applicable assessment criteria - Shell only and Shell and Core||
Where the building services efficiencies are not known, for example where they are not within the remit of the shell and core developer (i.e. where services will be provided as part of the fit-out works), services complying with the minimum energy efficiency standards or backstop levels required by the relevant national Building regulations should be used for the energy modelling.
|Green Fit-out agreement||For the purposes of this BREEAM assessment, it is permissible, when conducting the energy modelling, for the design team to substitute the minimum energy efficiency standards or backstop levels required by the relevant national building regulations for the performance specifications confirmed within a green fit-out agreement. This is permissible provided that the performance specification forms part of, or is referenced within, a fit-out agreement which is, or will be, contractually required of the tenants in their fit-out works. This rule applies only to those areas of the building that the scope of the green fit-out agreement covers. Speculative areas of the assessed building development not fitted out or covered by the scope of such an agreement must assume the minimum energy efficiency standards or backstop levels required by the relevant national building regulations in the energy model, and no better.|
|Residential - Partially fitted and fully fitted|
|Applicable assessment criteria - Single and multiple dwellings||
Both options: All criteria relevant to the building type and function apply.
Refer to Appendix E – Applicability of BREEAM New Construction to single and multiple dwellings, partially and fully fitted for a more detailed description of residential assessment options.
Extensions to existing buildings
Where an extension to an existing building is being assessed, and that extension uses an existing building services system, the energy modelling and percentage of improvement must be based on the building fabric of the extension and building services system that will service the new extension. This includes any existing, shared and new plants that will serve the new extension area.
The energy modelling does not have to consider the existing building fabric where it will be out of the scope of the BREEAM assessment. Nor does it have to consider existing service systems where they are not supplying heating, cooling or ventilation to the new extension being assessed.
|Suitably qualified energy modelling engineer or accredited expert||Where a National Calculation Methodology (NCM) requires accredited experts to undertake the energy performance calculations, these accredited professionals are also required to demonstrate compliance with this BREEAM issue. If the NCM does not require accredited experts, or alternative approved building energy calculation software is used, then a Suitably qualified energy modelling engineer or accredited professional must carry out the modelling (see Relevant definitions).|
|Hierarchy of options||
Where there is a NCM in the country of assessment, then Option 1 must be used to demonstrate compliance with this issue.
Where there is no National Calculation Method (NCM) in place OR where the NCM does not allow the design team to undertake an analysis of issues such as lighting or renewable energy generation, the design team may undertake a more thorough analysis of the performance of the building using alternative approved building energy calculation software (see CN3.3).
Option 2 is available for design teams if they choose not to carry out energy modelling of their building and where there is no NCM in place. However, because energy modelling is the preferred way to demonstrate that a building is energy efficient, a maximum of 10 credits is available using Option 2.
|Generating a notional building||
The notional building will be generated using EITHER:
Options 2 and 3 above are only available in countries where the local regulation is less rigorous than Appendix G of ASHRAE Energy Standard 90.1-2013 or the UK’s NCM.
All three performance metrics; demand, primary energy consumption and CO₂, generated by the approved building modelling software should be entered into the BREEAM scoring and reporting tool in order to calculate the Ene01 score, even if there are no mandatory requirements related to a particular metric in the country of assessment. For example, if the local building regulations only set a target with respect to primary energy consumption, but the approved software also reports figures for energy demand, both the figures for primary energy consumption and energy demand should be reported in the BREEAM scoring and reporting tool.
|Countries with a NCM that does not report on all three performance metrics||
The output documents generated by the approved software may not include all three performance metrics required by BREEAM. Where this is the case, all of the metrics that are available must be entered into the scoring and reporting tool (see CN3.6).
|Use of the energy demand metric||
While all metrics should be reported in the BREEAM scoring and reporting tool (see CN3.4), it should be noted that performance against the energy demand metric will only be considered in the calculation of the EPRINC, where it makes a positive contribution. If performance against the energy demand metric lowers the EPRINC, it will be automatically discounted from the calculation. The reason for this approach is to encourage the reporting of performance against the demand metric in all instances.
|Internal lighting not calculated using approved building energy calculation software||
Where the chosen modelling or calculation tool accounts for the energy used for internal lighting, the maximum credits available for this BREEAM issue will be 15.
If internal lighting is not included within the modelling calculations, the credits available from modelling will be reduced and the remaining credits awarded for complying with the lighting criteria within Checklist A5as follows.
|Building assessed as part of a larger development||Where the building under assessment forms part of a larger development and either a new or existing Low or zero carbon (LZC) technologies installation is provided for the whole site, then the amount of LZC energy generation counted for in this issue, and subsequent CO₂ emissions saved, should be proportional to the building's energy consumption compared to the total energy consumption for the site.|
|Estimating energy demand from building systems and processes||
At present there is no standard or national calculation methodology for modelling Equipment energy demands in a building. To demonstrate compliance with the ‘exemplary level criteria’ the building’s modelled Ene 01 Reduction of energy use and carbon emissions consumption is therefore used as a proxy for a building’s Ene 01 Reduction of energy use and carbon emissions demand, i.e. Ene 01 Reduction of energy use and carbon emissions equals 100% of Ene 01 Reduction of energy use and carbon emissions. While not accurate, this approach enables BREEAM to assess and award credits for a building that meets a proportion of its Ene 01 Reduction of energy use and carbon emissions demand via on site or near site renewable energy sources.
Where Ene 01 Reduction of energy use and carbon emissions demand for the building can be accurately predicted, then these data can be used to determine the percentage of Ene 01 Reduction of energy use and carbon emissions demand met via renewable energy sources. Ene 01 Reduction of energy use and carbon emissions demand could be estimated on the basis of metered data from a similar or the same building type with the same system or process loads or by using the methodology described in CIBSE TM54: 2013, 'Evaluating Operational Energy Performance of Buildings at the Design Stage, 2013' or other equivalent national best practice standards.
|Building type specific|
|Residential buildings - Calculation procedure for multiple dwellings||
The Ene 01 calculation should be completed for each dwelling or each energy type or each energy group (see CN4.1). The energy performance ratio (EPRINC) should then be area averaged for the whole development using the calculation procedure in Methodology for either Option 1 or 2.
Where the advised averaging method is deemed unsuitable for the approved building energy methodology, a new calculation can be approved; please contact BRE for guidance. An example is where a NCM considers energy consumption in communal areas as well as per dwelling.
|Residential buildings - Energy type||
A set of residences on a development are of the same ‘energy type’ if they have the same approved building energy calculation software outputs for performance data as outlined in criterion 2 . They will exhibit each of the following:
|Residential buildings - Energy groups||
Energy groups only apply when a building contains multiple flats or apartments within the same building envelope. The performance data outlined in criterion 2 can be averaged across the whole building provided that the same building services strategy is adopted throughout. These dwellings are defined as an energy group.
Note: This averaging rule cannot be applied to individual, but adjoined housing and is subject to the following:
It is the BREEAM Assessor’s choice whether or not to use the energy groups averaging method or to complete the calculation for each individual dwelling.
|Non-residential buildings - Energy modelling, BREEAM building use and tenancy arrangement||
The legislative criteria for energy modelling may vary according to building size, use, services and tenancy arrangement. In some instances modelling may be undertaken for the whole building; in others modelling may be undertaken for each individual unit or tenanted area within a building. The scope of a BREEAM assessment typically covers the whole building, regardless of whether that building consists of a number of units to be sublet.
Where energy modelling is required for each unit, for the purposes of determining the number of BREEAM credits, the EPRINC (as required for Option 1) is calculated as the area-weighted average EPRINC of each individual unit. Where the development contains conditioned shared or landlord spaces, the area of these spaces, unless otherwise accounted for, should be divided and attributed among the separate units. The proportion of shared areas attributed to each unit must be equivalent to the ratio of each unit’s area as a proportion of the total area of all units.
All units, heating systems and common areas within the assessed building must be accounted for in the assessment of Ene 01.
Ene 01 calculation methodology using Option 1
The methodology for the EPRINC calculation considers three performance metrics of the modelled building when determining the number of credits achieved for this issue. The three performance metrics are:
- The building's heating and cooling energy demand (MJ/m²)
- The building's primary energy consumption (kWh/m²)
- The total resulting CO₂ emissions (kgCO₂/m²).
The calculation methodology for determining the number of the credits achieved in the Ene 01 assessment issue is described in the following four steps:
Step 1: The building is modelled to demonstrate compliance with local building regulations
By a Suitably qualified energy modelling engineer or accredited professional using Approved building energy calculation software .
Step 2: The model is updated using the Ene 01 Reduction of energy use and carbon emissions
This creates a second set of performance data, which benchmarks the strength of the local building regulations.
Step 3: Performance data from Steps 1 and 2 entered into the scoring and reporting tool
- The scoring and reporting tool calculates a bespoke translator curve for the specific project.
- The bespoke translator curve determines the EPRINC based on the performance data for the actual building.
Step 4: EPRINC is used to award the BREEAM credits
The EPRINC is then compared to Table 26
When assessing a project, the assessor needs to enter the following parameters (see CN3.4) into the scoring and reporting tool to get the number of the Ene 01 credits achieved:
- Notional building energy demand (MJ/m²)
- Actual building energy demand (MJ/m²)
- BREEAM best practice building energy demand (MJ/m²)
- Notional building primary energy consumption (kWh/m²)
- Actual building primary energy consumption (kWh/m²)
- BREEAM best practice building primary energy consumption (kWh/m²)
- Notional building emission rate (kgCO₂/m²)
- Actual building emission rate (kgCO₂/m²)
- BREEAM best practice building emission rate (kgCO₂/m²).
The methodology summarised above is described in greater detail in Guidance Note 25: BREEAM International New Construction 2016 Ene 01 Calculation Methodology available on the BREEAM website.
|Criteria||Interim design stage||Final post-construction stage|
A copy of the report and output documents generated by the approved software for the assessed building at the design stage illustrating:
Where appropriate, a letter from the person carrying out the modelling confirming:
The output documents must be based on the 'as designed' stage of analysis.
Third party documentation, as follows:
A completed copy of Checklist A5.
The relevant specification clauses confirming details of compliance with each requirement.
A letter from the building services engineer confirming items selected from the checklist are appropriate for the building type and local climatic conditions.
|As-built drawings and specification demonstrating compliance with the criteria.|
A copy of a report, calculations or outputs from the manufacturer, supplier, engineer or software modelling confirming:
|As required for criteria 1–3 and as per interim design stage.|
- Actual Building Emission Rate
- This is the predicted building’s CO₂ emission rate that is expressed as kg CO₂/m²/year and calculated by the approved building energy calculation software.
- Approved building energy calculation software
- Software approved for the purpose of demonstrating compliance with the energy efficiency and carbon emission requirements of the building regulations (and in turn compliance with the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) recast 2012. In countries with an existing National Calculation Methodology (NCM), the tools approved for use under the NCM can be approved as building energy modelling software automatically. These will be confirmed by BRE as part of the Approved standards and weightings list process. Where the design team wishes to use an alternative modelling software package for assessing this BREEAM issue, please request the Approval for Energy Software from BRE Global to determine whether the software package meets the minimum requirements in terms of the minimum capabilities, design features and testing results. Where those minimum requirements are met, approval from BRE Global will be required (via the Approved standards and weightings list process) before the package can be used for the purposes of demonstrating compliance with Ene 01.
- BREEAM Best Practice Specification
- A set of modelling parameters that can be applied to a building to make it "best practice". This benchmark is used to determine how challenging a country's building regulations are. The Ene 01 calculator uses this benchmarked performance when calculating the EPRINC.
- Building regulations
- Building regulations set standards for the design and construction of buildings to ensure the safety and health of people in or about those buildings. They also include requirements to ensure that fuel and power is conserved and facilities are provided for people, including those with disabilities, to access and move around inside buildings.
- Energy demand
- The building energy provided for end uses in the building such as space heating, hot water, space cooling, lighting, fan power and pump power. Energy demands are the same as room loads. One of the outputs from the Building Regulations Output Document is for heating and cooling energy demand only, not for any other building energy uses. Heating and cooling energy demands are influenced by factors including building fabric heat loss, air permeability, glazing and shading.
- Energy Performance Ratio for International New Construction (EPRINC)
- A metric that is unique to BREEAM and calculated by the BREEAM Ene01 calculator tool using outputs from the approved building energy calculation software. It is a ratio that defines the performance of a BREEAM-assessed building in terms of its service energy demand, primary energy consumption and CO₂ emissions. This measure of performance is used to determine the number of Ene 01 credits a building achieves in the BREEAM assessment. A description of how the (EPRINC) is defined and calculated is provided in Methodology .
- Energy positive building
- A building where on site LZC technologies generate more energy than the building consumes, on a net annual basis.
- Equipment energy
- Building energy consumption resulting from systems or processes within the building, other than Service energy (see definition below). This may include energy consumption from systems integral to the building and its operation, e.g. lifts, escalators, refrigeration systems, ducted fume cupboards; or energy consumption from operational-related equipment, e.g. servers, printers, computers, mobile fume cupboards, cooking and other appliances.
- Green Fit-out agreement
- A formal contractually binding agreement between a building developer or owner and their tenants. As such, a green fit-out agreement (or ‘green’ clauses or sections in a lease agreement) can be used as evidence for demonstrating compliance with the relevant BREEAM issue criteria at the interim design and final post-construction stages of assessment. The agreement should make specific reference to the specification requirements or levels claimed, and as defined by BREEAM in this technical manual, where credits are awarded.
- BREEAM aims to encourage a mutually beneficial relationship between the shell and core developer or owner of a building and its future tenants so that the fully fitted operational building achieves performance against the highest possible environmental standards. In order to achieve this, BREEAM encourages and rewards the use of formal legally binding green fit-out agreements between a developer or owner and their tenant. Where a legally binding green fit-out agreement is provided as evidence and it commits the tenant’s fit-out to meet the criteria of this BREEAM issue, credits are available to be awarded.
- Low or zero carbon (LZC) technologies
- A LZC technology provides a source of energy generation from renewable energy sources or from a low carbon source such as combined heat and power (CHP) or ground source heat pumps (GSHP).
- National Calculation Method (NCM)
- A National Calculation Methodology (NCM) enables quantification of building operational energy consumption and CO₂ emissions resulting from building services or systems and fabric performance. Within Europe, a country’s NCM is the methodology used for demonstrating compliance with the EU Energy Performance of Buildings Directive.
- Near-site LZC
- A LZC source of energy generation located near to the site of the assessed building. The source is most likely to be providing energy for all or part of a local community of buildings, including the assessed building, e.g. decentralised energy generation linked to a community heat network or renewable electricity sources connected via a private wire arrangement.
- Notional building
- A hypothetical building of the same size, shape, orientation and shading as the actual building, with the same activities, zoning and system types and exposed to the same weather data, but with predefined specified properties for the building fabric, fittings and services.
- Notional building emission rate
- The notional building emission rate is the minimum energy performance requirement for a new building (kg CO₂/m²/year) as defined by local building regulations. This is calculated in accordance with approved building energy calculation software and is expressed in terms of the mass of CO₂ emitted per year per square metre of total useful floor area of the building (kg CO₂/m²/year).
- On-site LZC
- A LZC source of energy generation which is located on the same site as the assessed building.
- Primary energy consumption
- This refers to the direct use at the source, or supply to users without transformation, of crude energy, that is, energy that has not been subjected to any conversion or transformation process.
- Private wire arrangement
- In the context of BREEAM for LZC technology installations, a private wire arrangement is where any electricity generated on or in the vicinity of the site is fed directly to the building being assessed, by dedicated power supplies. If electricity is generated which is surplus to the instantaneous demand of the building, this electricity may be fed back to the national grid. The carbon benefit associated with any electricity fed into the grid in this manner can only be allocated against an individual installation or building. In cases where a building is supplied by a communal installation, no carbon benefit can be allocated to buildings which are not connected to the communal installation.
- Service energy
- Building energy consumption resulting from fixed internal lighting systems, fixed heating or cooling, hot water service or mechanical ventilation.
- Suitably qualified energy modelling engineer or accredited professional
- A person with a minimum of 3 year's relevant experience in building energy modelling within the last 5 years and a recognised qualification or chartership such as a building services engineer or building energy modelling engineer. Their expertise should be broad enough to cover all required technical aspects, guaranteeing that the data entry in the energy model is appropriate and the results reflect the actual performance of the building. It can be someone operating as a sole trader or employed by public or private enterprise bodies.
BREEAM International New Construction 2016
Reference: SD233 – Issue: 2.0
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