Projects in developed countries may only be built on greyfields or brownfields, previously developed sites that are not classified as on or adjacent to any of the following sensitive ecological habitats:
- Wetlands: maintain at least 15 meters, and up to 70 meters of separation
- Primary dunes: maintain at least 40 meters of separation
- Old-growth forest: maintain at least 60 meters of separation
- Virgin prairie: maintain at least 30 meters of separation
- Prime farmland
- Within the 100-year flood plain
The Community must document site conditions prior to the start of work and identify the project’s “reference habitat(s).” On-site landscape must be designed so that as it matures and evolves it increasingly emulates the functionality of indigenous ecosystems with regard to density, biodiversity, plant succession, water use, and nutrient needs. It shall also provide wildlife and avian habitat appropriate to the Community’s transect through the use of native and naturalized plants and topsoil. No petrochemical fertilizers or pesticides can be used for the operation and maintenance of the on-site landscape.
A Community in a developing country may build on a greenfield site as long as the project permanently conserves (through a partnership with a reputable land trust) twice as much land on or adjacent to the Community as is developed.
Emulates the Functionality of Indigenous Ecosystems
Landscapes must be designed so that as it matures and evolves it increasingly emulates the functionality of indigenous ecosystems with regard to density, biodiversity, plant succession, water use, and nutrient needs. It shall also provide wildlife and avian habitat appropriate to the project’s Transect through the use of native and naturalized plants and topsoil. For the purposes for emulated indigenous ecosystems, “landscape” is considered to be planted area outside of the square footage of agricultural cover required, per Imperative 2: Urban Agriculture.
No petrochemical fertilizers or pesticides can be used for the operation and maintenance of the on-site vegetation, including urban agriculture. (See LCC I-01-E7 Petrochemical Inputs in Specialized Agriculture).
Sensitive Ecological Habitats
A project whose purpose it is to protect or interpret one of the sensitive ecological habitats is exempt as long as the site’s ecological systems are not disturbed.
The Community must document site conditions prior to the start of work and identify the project’s “reference habitat(s).” Project Teams can use the WWF Wildfinder tool and/or other research tool(s) to identify the project’s “reference habitat(s).” (Related to LBC 19-0129 v3.1 Reference Habitat Tool Options: https:// support.living-future.org/article/488-19-0129-v3-1-reference-habitat-tooloptions)
Minimum buffer widths vary, depending on the wetland classification.
LCC I01-E1 02/2015 - Greenfields Surrounded by Development & Growth Management
Greenfield communities that are immediately adjacent to sites developed before 12/31/2007 on at least 75% of the project boundary are allowed. The surrounding development must abut the Community, but can consist of multiple, non-contiguous developments. Alternatively, greenfields around which the contiguous sites are not developed may be developed on a case-by-case basis when the majority of the surrounding halfkilometer area is developed. Communities planned for and proposed to be developed at densities of at least L-4 under jurisdiction-sanctioned Growth Management Plan ratified before 5/31/2014 are allowed. The Growth Management Plan must define a long-term urban/rural line based on planned growth capacity of the overall planned area. (Related to LBC I01-E3 10/2012 Greenfield Surrounded by Development)
LCC I01-E2 05/2014 - Farming
Communities that have a primary purpose related to farming or are a working farm may build within prime farmland or the 100-year floodplain. Project teams must provide at least one legal and one economic document to prove the Community is currently operating as an agricultural zone. (Related to LBC I01-E9 4/2010 Farming)
LCC I01-E3 05/2014 - Working Ports, Docks, Landscapes and Infrastructure in 100-Year Floodplain
Working ports, docks, and all of the Community’s landscape and infrastructure projects may build within the 100-year floodplain. Project teams must provide at least one legal and one economic document to prove the site is currently operating. (Related to LBC I01-E10 4/2010 Working Ports or Docks)
LCC I01-E4 05/2014 - Historic Communities
Communities and sites that are part of the Community that are part of an existing historic development prior to 1945 may build within the 100-year floodplain. The project team must show that the Community is either on a site that was developed by 1945, or outside of the floodplain. See I01-E5 for further background. (Related to LBC I01-E11 4/2010 Historic Communities)
LCC I01-E5 05/2014 - Floodplain-L5/L6 Transects
Projects in L5 or L6 may build within the 100-year floodplain. The purpose of the Historic Community and L5/L6 Transect Exception is to encourage, rather than to disallow, projects in core areas of a community where support infrastructure and services are already robust. Early city development often was in close proximity to waterways to ease opportunities for trade and deliveries to support commerce and industry. (Related to LBC I01-E12 4/2010 Floodplain-L5/L6 Transects)
Note: Exceptions I01-E4 and E5 support development in these existing areas, rather than encouraging new projects on the outskirts of town, which would not only dilute the cultural history of the historic core, but also add unnecessary infrastructure development.
LCC I01-E6 05/2017 - Sites Designated for Increased Density
A community with proposed L3 - L6 density and located within an urban growth boundary may develop on: Prime farmland sites or sites that are not classified as on or adjacent to any of the following sensitive ecological habitats (separation distances detailed in Imperative 01 Limits to Growth must be maintained):
- primary dunes
- old-growth forest
- virgin prairie
- within the 100-year flood plain
Provided that the community:
- Implements on-site landscape requirements of Imperative 01 Limits to Growth: ‘as it matures and evolves it increasingly emulates the functionality of indigenous ecosystems with regard to density, biodiversity, plant succession, water use, and nutrient needs’
- Achieves the Place Petal
- Achieves the Health & Happiness Petal
- Is served by at least one public transit route (e.g. ferry, train, light rail, bus rapid transit) within 1 kilometer from every point in the Community
- Does not exceed a maximum percentage of any single occupancy type within the community - shall not exceed 60%
- Provides residential dwelling units and a diversity of essential components of livability to create a walkable community.A community may:
- Provide residential dwelling units and a minimum of 10 (no more than 2 components may be the same category) essential components of livability, such as: grocery store, restaurant, community center, library, day care, educational facilities, cultural facilities (theater, religious), services (post office, bank), medical / dental facility, retail OR
- Provide residential dwelling units and achieve a Walk Score of 80 or above
LCC I-01-E7 06/2019 - Petrochemical Inputs in Specialized Agriculture
Petrochemical derivatives that are approved for use within both the National Organic Program’s National List of Allowed and Prohibited Substances (NOP 205.600 - 205.619) and the California Land Stewardship Institute’s Fish Friendly Farming Certification may be used in specialized agricultural production, such as commercial viniculture, because no viable alternatives are available. (Related to LBC I01-E14 8/2015 Petrochemical Inputs in Specialized Agriculture)
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