Design for extreme weather, wildfire, and natural and man-made earthquakes. Identify earthquake risks on seismic maps. Design underground tornado shelters to reduce deaths and injuries. Safeguard toxic materials stored in 500-year flood zones. Ensure operable windows in apartments and other multifamily buildings so they can be used during power outages.
Extreme weather encompasses more intense weather events particular to a location and its changing weather and climate. Wildfire risk is increasing, especially in regions west of the Mississippi where drought is more frequent.
STRUCTURE + COMMUNITY REQUIREMENTS
HA Action 1.1 Rainwater Management for Extreme Rain Events
Structure + Community: (13 points)
Recalibrate the average 100-year, 24-Hour Storm Water Event upward based on the National Climate Assessment Report and the assumption that CO2 emissions will continue to rise at some level for the next 20 years before leveling off or declining.
To improve safety + resiliency, account for linear increases in precipitation over a 30 year period. Increase the amount of anticipated precipitation falling during a very heavy event by a factor of 1.55* X the observed change that has occurred over the past 54 years between 1958 and 2012.
Refer to figure 2.18 in Observed Change in Very Heavy Precipitation of the U.S. National Climate Assessment Report.
- Example: Observed Change for the area comprised of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio and Wisconsin is 37%. The recalibrated storm water results would be: 37% X 1.55 = 57% increase.
*30 years is approximately 55% of 54 years. The calculation assumes a linear increase in event strength.
HA Action 1.2 Adaptive Design for Flooding, Sea Rise, Storm Surge + Extreme Weather, Events + Hazards (1-20 points)
Safer Design for Extreme Weather, Wildfire, Fire + Seismic Events
Develop a Hazard Map for the project as described by Architecture 2030. Hazard Mapping Swatch - 2030 Palette
Hazards for All Structures + Communities
Applicable hazards include:
- Fire: Meet the Fortified for Safer Business Standard Criteria 3.9: Wildfire Specific Design Requirements including all recommended practices.
- Burglary: Meet the criteria for the Fortified for Safer Business Standard Criteria 3.10: Burglary Specific Design Requirements including all recommended practices.
- Electrical Surge Protection: Meet the Fortified for Safer Business Standard Criteria 3.11: Electrical Surge Protection Specific Design Requirements including all recommended practices.
- Hazardous Materials Incidents: Ventilation Shut-Down Switch: Provide an emergency shutdown switch, available to building occupants, that begins an automated, orderly, and rapid shutdown of the building’s ventilation system, and a closure of outdoor air dampers. With the permission of the appropriate authorities, provide a manual override that pauses the function of automated pressurization systems for elevator shafts and/or exit stairs in multistory buildings and/or high-rise buildings equipped with these features to stop an accidental introduction of outside air and hazardous airborne materials because of an activation of these systems by the building's life safety system.
Fundamental Building Systems: Protect High-Risk System Components
For projects or parts of projects or project infrastructure located below the 500-year floodplain OR at risk from 1,000-year rain events, conform to the NYC Urban Green Proposals #3 Relocate + Protect Building Systems.
Hazards based on geographic location - Structure + Community
Includes: earthquakes, floods and flashfloods, hail + tornadoes, hurricanes, severe winter storms and wildfire. Identify Hazard risks based on geographic location for the project using the Insurance Institute for Business + Home Safety Home Page (IBHS) Zip Code tool located on their webpage.
- (The following risks must be addressed if they are applicable to a project: Wildfire, Flooding, Extreme Rain, Hurricanes, Sea Level Rise and Earthquakes)
Wildfire (4 points)
Demonstrate compliance with ICC’s 2012 International Wildland-Urban Interface Code (IWUIC) or 2013 NFPA 1144. Provide a signed Executive Summary from a report from a Licensed Design Professional that describes how the project met, or will meet, ICC’s 2012 IWUIC and/or 2013 NFPA 1144.
For Mission-Critical Facilities:
Hospitals, emergency clinics, nursing homes, key government centers, data + internet critical communication centers, emergency response facilities and other essential facilities, including residential facilities with overnight occupancy:
- Locate all important functions and services above the 500-year floodplain and design the facility rainwater infrastructure, footings, foundations and grounds to successfully deal with a 1,000-year rain event.
Sea Level Rise + Storm Surge: (4 points)
Comply with the HMA Requirement 1 Sites of Avoidance + Repair: Floodplain, Sea Level Rise + Storm Surge.
Sites Not Permitted
Projects on karst or sandy topography below the Sea Level Rise Planning Scenarios described in this checklist, relative to the project type, are not permitted. It is important to avoid karst or sandy topography in tidal areas due to the severe challenge of preventing sea water flooding from subterranean infiltration through the soil profile and below, sewers, subsidence, and erosion.
Sea Level Rise Planning Scenarios
- Low-Risk Projects: For projects using Previously Developed Sites and/or Sites Within Existing Built Environments such as cities and towns and/or projects that represent small financial investments, low-hazard risk implications, non-critical infrastructure and those NOT establishing baseline planning elevations (streets, light rail, etc.), avoid greenfield sites inundated by 3’ sea level rise and provide an engineering solution for sites inundated by up to 6’ of sea level rise (The IPCC RCP8.5 “High” Scenario estimates a 3’-2” or 1 meter Rise/The NOAA 2012 “High” Scenario estimates a 6’-6” rise).
- Modest to High-Risk Projects: For projects of modest to significant financial investment, low to moderate-hazard risk implications, critical infrastructure and those establishing baseline planning elevations (streets, light rail, etc.), avoid sites inundated by 5’ sea level rise and provide an engineering solution for sites inundated by more up to 6’ of sea level rise. (The “High” scenario defined by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers roughly corresponds to a 4’-9” or 1.5 Meter increase, but varies depending on location.)
- Significant, High-Risk and/or Long-term Mission Critical Projects: For projects involving significant financial and resource investment, high-hazard implications and/or long-term mission-critical infrastructure including, but not limited to, major sea level rise barriers and mitigating infrastructure, hospitals, communication + power hubs, energy infrastructure, hazardous material infrastructure, etc. Avoid all sites inundated by 7’-0” sea level rise and plan for a feasible engineering solution for sites inundated by up to 9’ of sea level rise (Sea level experts anticipate up to a 9’-8’ (3 meter) rise through 2300. The “High” scenario defined by NOAA is a 6’-6” or 2 meter increase by 2100.)
Enhanced Storm Surge Adaptation
Based on the sea level rise defined in this checklist, projects (except for significant, highrisk and/or mission-critical projects) should accommodate a Category 3 hurricane and the related storm surge with minimal interruption to services provided by the facility, beyond the immediate time frame of the storm.
Provide for Category 5 hurricane and storm surge mitigation, including permanent infrastructure as required to protect the entire facility and/or protect critical infrastructure. There may be an interruption to nonessential functions and services provided by the facility beyond the immediate time frame of the storm. Protect or locate key functions and service areas above the Category 5 surge elevation to provide for emergency operations. Significant, high-risk and/or mission-critical projects should accommodate and mitigate Category 4 and Category 5 storms respectively.
Notes on Sea Level Rise:
The year 2100 sea level rise based on the IPCC RCP8.5 Mean “High” Scenario with a Medium Confidence Rating or “Likely” rating is approximately 0.745 meters or roughly 2-1/2 feet (about 2’-6”) (the actual change will vary based on local conditions). This level is below the NOAA “Intermediate High” scenario of 3’-9” and below the high level of 4’-9” or greater rise expected by 70 global sea level experts (see guidance below). However, it is generally above the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers’ “Intermediate” scenario of roughly 1’-9” (Sea-Level Change Curve Calculator 2014.88). The 6’ increase recognized by the checklist roughly corresponds to the high case scenario of 6’-6” or 2 meters established by NOAA. Sea level-experts anticipate a 6’-6” to 9’-8” (2-3 meter) rise through 2300 (see guidance below) and the 8’ minimum rise for higher-risk projects helps to limit the economic, social, health and environmental exposures from sea level rise that may otherwise overrun facilities that operate for extended time frames (or set baseline elevations for extended infrastructure) and could pose a significant risk to communities due to toxic exposures through flooding and/or failure to provide vital services such as energy generation or sewage processing.
There are several variables impacting sea level scenarios. Two important variables are: climate change mitigation (or lack of mitigation), and reinforcing feedback loops.
Aggressive mitigation of climate forcing gases (CO2, CH4, etc.) could reduce the extent of sea rise, but current indicators are not strong for near-term aggressive mitigation.
NOAA’s “intermediate high” scenario sets a 3’-9” or 1.1 meters increase based on projected ocean warming + current levels of ice sheet melting. A lack of mitigation would increase the impact of reinforcing feedback loops and/or the strength of feedback loops could be greater than anticipated (which appears likely given the faster than expected decrease in Arctic sea ice), resulting in higher levels of warming and greater sea level rise due to thermal expansion and most importantly, greater ice sheet melting, particularly in Greenland and West Antarctica (see guidance below).
- “Sea-level rise: What the Experts Expect” Nov 2013, Realclimate.org
- Underwriting Documentation: Recognized Map Showing Location Outside 500-Year Floodplain
- “Global Warming of 1.5, a report of the Intergovernmental Panel on climate change, 2018 http://www.ipcc.ch/report/sr15/”
Additional Emergency Provisions for the Community
Projects should prepare to provide active community support and recovery by earning credit HPM CR3 - Provide Additional Provisions for the Community: Four Days.
Public Amenities: Provide and/or Manage and Operate a Community Space + Resource
Projects should prepare to provide active community support and recovery during and after emergencies by earning credit HM 4.0 by providing one or more of the following to the community: Provide a small (3-10 person) emergency shelter, provide kitchen space, provide space for a community tool share program, host or co-host and manage a community tool share program, provide meeting space for at least eight people, host or co-host and manage a meeting space, provide space for and/or host a community radio (or HAM radio station), host or co-host and manage community mesh network.
Wind – All Hurricane, High Wind and Tornado/Hail Areas (4 points)
Meet the “FORTIFIED Commercial High Wind and Hail” or the “FORTIFIED Commercial Hurricane” design criteria.
Reference: FORTIFIED Commercial High Wind and Hail
Reference: FORTIFIED Commercial Hurricane
Meet the “FORTIFIED Commercial Hurricane” Design Requirements, including all recommended practices, or the equivalent as listed on the IBHS website.
Reference: FORTIFIED Commercial Hurricane
Meet the FORTIFIED Commercial High Wind and Hail Design Requirements including all recommended practices, or the IBHS equivalent listed on the IBHS website.
Reference: FORTIFIED Commercial High Wind and Hail
Projects in FEMA Wind Zones III or IV with public/community uses and multifamily housing facilities must include safe rooms designed and constructed to standards detailed in FEMA P-361 Design and Construction Guidance for Community Safe Rooms, 2015 edition or most recent version. (4 points)
Projects in FEMA Wind Zones III and IV without community uses must include refuge areas designed and constructed to standards detailed in FEMA P-431 Tornado Protection: Selecting Refuge Areas in Buildings.
If a tornado shelter is installed, it is recommended that it meet the requirements of FEMA 320 “Taking Shelter From the Storm: Building a Safe Room For Your Home or Small Business,” FEMA 361 “Design and Construction Guidance for Community Safe Rooms,” or the International Code Council + National Storm Shelter Association (ICC/NSSA) - ICC-500 “Standard on the Design and Construction of Storm Shelters.” (4 points)
Severe Winter Storms (4 points)
Provide hardening of the roof system to prevent potential collapse by designing the snow loads to be 1.2 times the ground snow loads shown in ASCE 7 (or the locally adopted ground snow loads in Case Study areas).
Protect against ice dam formation on low-sloped roofs by preventing ice from forming around drains. For steep-sloped roofs, designs should include increased attic insulation, sealed ceiling penetrations, and waterproofed membranes on roof deck at roof edge (ice and water barrier). This moisture barrier should extend from the roof edge to at least 2’ towards the interior of the building, beyond the exterior wall enclosing conditioned space. No localized heat source should be installed in non-conditioned attic space such that it creates localized heating of the roof surface. Uninsulated recessed lights should not be installed where they could cause localized heating of the roof surface. Provide all attic or roof access doors between conditioned and non-conditioned space with proper insulation, sealant and weather-stripping, or gaskets, and treat them as exterior doors.
Run water pipes through interior walls and heated spaces to prevent frozen pipes. Insulate/seal all wall, door, and wall penetrations. Monitor interior building temperature to prevent freezing of interior piping such as domestic water and fire protection sprinkler systems.
Prepare a snow event response and removal plan based upon the FEMA Snow Load Safety Guide. The plan should include when snow removal should be initiated and how access will be provided to roof for snow removal.
Reference: Snow Load Safety Guide (FEMA P-957)
Earthquakes (4 points)
Meet the ARUP Redi Rating System including all recommended practices OR meet the U.S. Resiliency Council Rating System Requirements for a Project at the silver level or above.
Reference: ARUP REDi Rating System
USRC’s Implementation Manual USRC Building Rating System for Earthquake Hazards
For areas subject to hydraulic-fracturing, design for seismic events measuring up to 4.5
Reference: Current active areas of Hydraulic Fracturing in the U.S. – FracTracker
For projects located within 20 Miles of a Nuclear Power Plant or Nuclear Reactor along with the ventilation and pressurization controls provided for in the Hazardous Materials Incident section, provide a hot weather “Safety Zone” for regular building occupants that is passively cooled and can maintain a livable temperature for up to four consecutive days in case of a shelter-in-place order.
HA Action 1.3 NYC Urban Green Proposals
Confirm with the following proposals developed by the Urban Green, NYC Building Resiliency Task Force. (1-6 points)
#3 Relocate and Protect Building Systems (1 point)
#4 Remover Barriers to Elevate Buildings + Building Systems (Elevate the building and building systems) (1 point)
#5 Remove Barriers to Sidewalk Flood Protection (Design for Sidewalk Flood Protection (1 point)
#6 Add Back-up Fire Safety Communication (1 point)
#9 Plant Wind + Flood Resistant Trees (1 point)
#13 Capture Storm water to Prevent Flooding (1 point)
References: Urban Green Building Resiliency Task Force: Task Force Summary Report Urban Green Building Resiliency Task Force: Task Force Full Proposals June 2013
HA Action 1.4
- Avoid Proximity to Hazardous Sites (3-6 Points)
- Hazardous Material Production or Storage Sites: 1000 Km/3200 Feet Away (3 points)
Identify Hazardous Material Risks around the Project:
Using the EPA “Vulnerable Zone Indicator System” webpage submit a request to the EPA to identify facilities in your area that use extremely hazardous substances under the Risk Management Plan (RMP) Rule.
Locate local EPA, State and Tribal Facilities of Interest
Use the EPA Facility Registry System (FRS) Envirofacts “What Facilities Report to FRS for my area of interest” to identify Locate EPA, State and Tribal Facilities of Interest in your area.
- EPA Envirofacts: What Facilities Report to FRS for my area of interest
Locate facilities with EPA non-compliance records
Search EPA compliance records using the EPA Facility Registry System (FRS) Envirofacts ECHO/IDEA report using the search feature: “What are the compliance records for facilities in my area of interest.” Use this information to better understand potential hazardous material risks in your area.
Nuclear Power Plants: 30 Km/20 Miles Away
Locate U.S. Nuclear Reactors near the project location using the NRC Reactor Map
Safeguard Toxic + Hazardous Materials in Flood, Surge and Sea Rise Areas (3 points)
For projects or parts of projects located below the 500 floodplain OR at risk from 1000 year rain events, conform to the NYC Urban Green Proposals #7. Safeguard Toxic Materials Stored in Flood Zones.
Urban Green Building Resiliency Task Force: Task Force Full Proposals June 2013
HA Action 1.5 Conventional + Naturalized Rainwater and Flood Management (8 points)
Protect, Restore or Create naturalized Rainwater Flood Management Systems to support large tracts of land and large volumes of water using biomimetic techniques.
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