Design for extreme weather, wildfire, and natural and man-made earthquakes. Identify earthquake risks on seismic maps. Design underground tornado shelters to reduce risk of death and injury. Safeguard toxic materials stored in 500-year flood zones. Ensure operable windows in apartments and other multifamily buildings so they can be used during power outages.
Extreme weather encompasses more intense weather events particular to a location and its changing weather and climate. Wildfire risk is increasing, especially in regions west of the Mississippi where drought is more frequent.
STRUCTURE + COMMUNITY REQUIREMENTS
Hazards for all Structure + Community Include: Application Criteria for each are identified below.
- Hazards based on geographic location - Structure + Community.
- Includes: earthquakes. floods, hail + tornadoes, hurricanes, severe winter storms and wildfire.
- Identify Hazard risks based on geographic location for the project: Use the Insurance Institute for Business + Home Safety Home Page (IBHS) Zip Code tool located on their webpage.
- Earthquakes: Meet the ARUP REDi Rating System Requirements for a Project certified at the silver level or above OR meet the U.S. Resiliency Council Rating System Requirements for a Project certified at the gold level or above.
- Reference: ARUP REDi Rating System.
- USRC’s Implementation Manual USRC Building Rating System for Earthquake Hazards.
- Hurricanes: Meet the FORTIFIED Commercial Hurricane Specific Design Requirements.
- Reference: FORTIFIED Commercial Hurricane
- Hail: Meet the FORTIFIED Commercial High Wind and Hail Specific Design Requirements for Hail.
- Reference: FORTIFIED Commercial High Wind and Hail
- Projects in FEMA Wind Zones III or IV with public/community uses and multifamily housing facilities must include safe rooms designed and constructed to standards detailed in FEMA P-361 Design and Construction Guidance for Community Safe Rooms, 2015 edition.
- Projects in FEMA Wind Zones III and IV without community uses must include refuge areas designed and constructed to standards detailed in FEMA P-431 Tornado Protection: Selecting Refuge Areas in Buildings. OR
- If a tornado shelter is installed, it is recommended that it meet the requirements of FEMA 320 “Taking Shelter From the Storm: Building a Safe Room For Your Home or Small Business,” FEMA 361 “Design and Construction Guidance for Community Safe Rooms,” or the International Code Council + National Storm Shelter Association (ICC/NSSA) - ICC-500 “Standard on the Design and Construction of Storm Shelters.”
- Severe Winter Storms:
- Provide hardening of the roof system to prevent potential collapse by designing the snow loads to be 1.2 times the ground snow loads shown in ASCE 7 (or the locally adopted ground snow loads in Case Study areas).
- Protect against ice dam formation on low-sloped roofs by preventing ice from forming around drains. For steep-sloped roofs, designs should include increased attic insulation, sealed ceiling penetrations, and waterproofed membranes on roof deck at roof edge (ice and water barrier). This moisture barrier should extend from the roof edge to at least 2 feet towards the interior of the building, beyond the exterior wall enclosing conditioned space. No localized heat source should be installed in non-conditioned attic space such that it creates localized heating of the roof surface. Uninsulated recessed lights should not be installed where they could cause localized heating of the roof surface. Provide all attic or roof access doors between conditioned and nonconditioned space with proper insulation, sealant, and weather-stripping or gaskets and treat them as exterior doors.
- Run water pipes through interior walls and heated spaces to prevent frozen pipes. Insulate/seal all wall, door, and wall penetrations. Monitor interior building temperature to prevent freezing of interior piping such as domestic water and fire protection sprinkler systems.
- Prepare a Snow Event Response and Removal Plan based upon the FEMA Snow Load Safety Guide. The Plan should define at what point snow removal should be initiated as well as how access will be provided to roof for snow removal.
- Wildfire: Demonstrate compliance with ICC’s 2012 International Wildland-Urban Interface Code (IWUIC) or 2013 NFPA 1144. Provide a signed Executive Summary from a report from a Licensed Design Professional that describes how the project met or will meet ICC’s 2012 IWUIC and/or 2013 NFPA 1144.
- Wind - All Hurricane, High Wind and Tornado/Hail Areas: Meet the ”FORTIFIED Commercial Hurricane” and the “FORTIFIED Commercial High Wind and Hail” standards or the standards of any IBHS equivalent as displayed on the IBHS website.
- Refer to the IBHS publications for wind zone classifications: Hurricane, High Wind and High Wind/Tornado. Reference: “FORTIFIED Commercial Hurricane” and “FORTIFIED Commercial High Wind and Hail”
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